The fastest (and most unsafe) way to reboot your computer is
to press these these combinations, one after one.
Alt+SysRQ+s - Sync data to disks for all mounted disks immediately.
Alt+SysRQ+u - Remount all filesystems as readonly.
Alt+SysRQ+b - Reboot immediately.
There're a lot of kernel functions availible, depending upon your kernel version.
You can find them in kernelsource/Documentation/sysrq.txt file.
You can enable all of kernel functions by,
echo 1 >/proc/sys/kernel/sysrq
Pressing Alt+SysRQ+h should tell you about various sysRQ functions availible (in dmesg output). For example, on my system (Feisty Fawn), they are
SysRq : HELP : loglevel0-8 reBoot Crashdump tErm Full kIll saK showMem Nice powerOff showPc unRaw Sync showTasks Unmount shoW-blocked-tasks
The saK (secure access key) can be used to allow secure login. The output of kernel functions, if any, goes to /var/log/messages (or dmesg).